(p.265) The diversity of the vegetation and of higher animals is discussed on the basis of earlier works and surveys. 11.8 Preserving altitudinal gradients of plant diversity in the Succulent Karoo. Elasticity values, which are a measure of the sensitivity of the population to changes in individual fecundity, growth, and stasis (some individuals do not change size from one year to the next), indicated that the stasis of the adults contributed most to demography (S = 0.98), followed by growth (G = 0.017) and fecundity (F = 0.001). These lands also fall under the secular authority of traditional village councils, elders, and the community itself (Robbins 1998). This species is endemic to Mexico. These are usually large species with low reproductive rates and large home ranges (Mills et al. 2000; Wiegand et al. 1999. Grasses may be grazed but are generally not cut and/or removed. With kind permission of Blackwell Publishing.). Here too they found significant G × E interactions, again indicating the value of separate conservation of each of these populations. Such large changes in population sizes meant that, at best, only populations of about 250 animals would be conserved in the area (about 7,000 km2) of the Kaokoveld of the Namib desert where the black rhinos occurred (Fig. (2004) recognized that there were fewer moss species occurring in the revegetated lands than in naturally fixed dune surfaces. One third 3. Doubling the number of females from 11 to 22 would have increased Ne to 6.3 only. - Sustainable tourism compatible with biodiversity conservation? Not yet Numbers in figure indicate numbers of animals seen. This chapter considers the following: (1) the conservation of individual desert species versus a habitat-level approach; (2) re-introductions and re-colonizations of endangered species and revegetation of desert habitats; (3) in areas where there are strong GxE interactions — which is where evolution of new species starts to occur — it may be important to conserve each population separately. The plants, wildlife and overall ecosystem of the Sahara Desert are threatened by human activities, such as overstocking livestock, an increasing demand for firewood, irrigation development and hunting for food and sport. The population continued to grow and by October 1995 numbered approximately 280 in the wild and used over 16,000 km2 of the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary. elephants or lions). The animals were reintroduced in Mahazat as-Sayd, a fenced reserve about 2,250 km2 in area in west-central Arabia, which lies at the periphery of their historical home range (Treydte et al. (From Li et al. It is not always clear whether these schemes are involved in vegetating lands that are naturally dune sands and thus do not warrant revegetating because they could be maintained in their natural state or whether revegetation is needed to restore the lands to their original states. In all four cases, it is clear that saving any of these species necessarily leads to saving a number of other species that either depend on them (e.g. Fig. Broadly speaking, Desert Survivors is for the preservation of Desert Lands; encompassing habitat, plants, wildlife, water sources and scenic areas - including, but not limited to: national parks and monuments, wilderness areas, scenic areas, state and local parks, wildlife refuges and undeveloped areas.We are not 'eco-tourists', nor are we 'eco-terrorists'. Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth's surface and occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm/year. quartz-gravel plains, and shale ridges (Schmiedel and Jürgens 1999). Each data point is a single individual in two-dimensional space. A collection of nearly 400 rare, threatened or endangered desert plant species. It is planned to define goals for specific ecosystems including deserts. The control by the forest department employees is limited, especially where local communities are wealthy (corruption of the employees occurs). Responses to authorities varied considerably (Fig. It includes 4,850 plant species of which about 40% (1,940 species) are endemic (Ihlenfeldt 1994; Hilton-Taylor 1996). The DBG is committed to research and conversation for desert ecosystems around the world. The mechanism is that seeds remain in the gut of large mammals for longer than in small mammals. With kind permission of Cambridge University Press.). Gocher = sacred forest; Oran = controlled by village elites. The Succulent Karoo is the only reintroduction, recolonization, revegetation, GxE interactions, habitat conservation, conservation costs. Where a population is a harem species, few males reproduce (most males are bachelor males that do not reproduce). The stakes held by resource users in the protection of the resource, that is, if people stood to gain from maintaining a resource, then 11.2 In the Kaokoveld region of the Namib desert where the black rhinos occurred, about 33% of the large herbivore species never exceeded populations of more than 50 individuals. With kind permission of Blackwell Publishing. Fig. Jimenez-Sierra et al. (p.261) (2003) found that there was a significant They considered this species to be a potential umbrella species and that conserving metapopulations of this species could also aid in the conservation of other rock-dwelling species such as the Syrian hyrax, Procavia syriaca, Afghan fox, Vulpes cana, and leopard, Panthera pardus. There are many additional reasons for why it is important to conserve deserts, for example: 1. Contact us today to learn how you can support the preservation of our desert’s natural state. Camels also consume young seedlings, so they would need to be removed before the plants reached the seedling stage (Rohner and Ward 1999). (p.266) With a few subsequent additions from a captive herd, by 2000, the population had increased to 346 animals. Through various projects and collaborations, we are dedicated to reintroduction and recovery efforts for species around the world. 2002. They have been seeking to protect wildlife and the habitats since 1947. The last-mentioned source of variability can be a considerable problem because variance in reproductive output has a stronger negative effect on reproductive success than changes in the mean value. to adjust for predicted changes in species’ distributions caused by global climate changes as mentioned above and in Chapter 10) incurs a cost in terms of representation. All three of these could be affected by social caste and gender. Browsing animals such as goats and camels may also remove leaves from lower branches of trees. Since many desert areas have historically been perceived as wastelands, many are in relatively pristine condition (but see Chapter 10 for negative human impacts on desert habitats). (2000b) found that women controlled more of the resources (especially with regard to livestock) than men in Otjimbingwe in the Namib desert and did not need to seek their permission for use of resources. Despite the poaching, the population continued to increase and by October 1996 was estimated to be just over 400. (2007) consider will be useful for this species’ conservation include (1) the establishment of grazing-free areas where competition with other shrubby species is minimized, (2) the collection and storage of seeds from areas that have deteriorated or have been subjected to heavy grazing pressure, and (3) the cultivation of the cactus in greenhouses by local inhabitants. 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